Mania

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Mania steht für: Mania (Göttin), römische Göttin; Mania (Personifikation), in der griechischen Mythologie eine Verkörperung des Wahnsinns und der Raserei. [1] hveksplosion.nl Englisch-Englisches Wörterbuch, Thesaurus und Enzyklopädie „mania“: [1] hveksplosion.nl Englisch-Deutsch, Stichwort: „mania“. mania (​Französisch). ma·nia [ˈmeɪniə] SUBST. 1. mania abw (obsessive enthusiasm). mania Bedeutung, Definition mania: 1. a very strong interest in something that fills a person's mind or uses up all their time: 2. a. -mania (Latein). Wortart: Gebundenes Lexem. Silbentrennung: ae|mia, Mehrzahl​: ae|mi|ae. Wortbedeutung/Definition: 1) neulateinisch: gebundenes Lexem mit.

Mania

-mania (Latein). Wortart: Gebundenes Lexem. Silbentrennung: ae|mia, Mehrzahl​: ae|mi|ae. Wortbedeutung/Definition: 1) neulateinisch: gebundenes Lexem mit. Mania steht für: Mania (Göttin), römische Göttin; Mania (Personifikation), in der griechischen Mythologie eine Verkörperung des Wahnsinns und der Raserei. mania Bedeutung, Definition mania: 1. a very strong interest in something that fills a person's mind or uses up all their time: 2. a.

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Mania Video

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Login or Register. Save Word. Log In. Definition of mania. Keep scrolling for more. Examples of mania in a Sentence She would typically experience a period of mania and then suddenly become deeply depressed.

First Known Use of mania 14th century, in the meaning defined at sense 1. History and Etymology for mania Middle English, from Late Latin, from Greek, from mainesthai to be mad; akin to Greek menos spirit — more at mind.

Learn More about mania. Time Traveler for mania The first known use of mania was in the 14th century See more words from the same century.

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Love words? This has caused some speculation, among clinicians, that mania and depression, rather than constituting "true" polar opposites, are, rather, two independent axes in a unipolar—bipolar spectrum.

A mixed affective state, especially with prominent manic symptoms, places the patient at a greater risk for completed suicide.

Depression on its own is a risk factor but, when coupled with an increase in energy and goal-directed activity, the patient is far more likely to act with violence on suicidal impulses.

Hypomania, which means "less than mania", [7] is a lowered state of mania that does little to impair function or decrease quality of life.

In hypomania, there is less need for sleep and both goal-motivated behaviour and metabolism increase. Some studies exploring brain metabolism in subjects with hypomania, however, did not find any conclusive link; while there are studies that reported abnormalities, some failed to detect differences.

In addition, the exaggerated case of hypomania can lead to problems. For instance, trait-based positivity for a person could make him more engaging and outgoing, and cause him to have a positive outlook in life.

A single manic episode, in the absence of secondary causes, i. Hypomania may be indicative of bipolar II disorder.

Certain obsessive-compulsive spectrum disorders as well as impulse control disorders share the suffix "-mania," namely, kleptomania , pyromania , and trichotillomania.

Despite the unfortunate association implied by the name, however, no connection exists between mania or bipolar disorder and these disorders.

Furthermore, evidence indicates a B 12 deficiency can also cause symptoms characteristic of mania and psychosis.

Hyperthyroidism can produce similar symptoms to those of mania, such as agitation, elevated mood, increased energy, hyperactivity, sleep disturbances and sometimes, especially in severe cases, psychosis.

To be classified as a manic episode, while the disturbed mood and an increase in goal directed activity or energy is present, at least three or four, if only irritability is present of the following must have been consistently present:.

Though the activities one participates in while in a manic state are not always negative, those with the potential to have negative outcomes are far more likely.

If the person is concurrently depressed, they are said to be having a mixed episode. Frequently, confidence and self-esteem are excessively enlarged, and grand, extravagant ideas are expressed.

Behavior that is out of character and risky, foolish or inappropriate may result from a loss of normal social restraint. Some people also have physical symptoms, such as sweating, pacing, and weight loss.

In full-blown mania, often the manic person will feel as though his or her goal s are of paramount importance, that there are no consequences or that negative consequences would be minimal, and that they need not exercise restraint in the pursuit of what they are after.

The hypomanic person's connection with the external world, and its standards of interaction, remain intact, although intensity of moods is heightened.

But those who suffer from prolonged unresolved hypomania do run the risk of developing full mania, and indeed may cross that "line" without even realizing they have done so.

One of the signature symptoms of mania and to a lesser extent, hypomania is what many have described as racing thoughts. These are usually instances in which the manic person is excessively distracted by objectively unimportant stimuli.

Racing thoughts also interfere with the ability to fall asleep. Manic states are always relative to the normal state of intensity of the afflicted individual; thus, already irritable patients may find themselves losing their tempers even more quickly, and an academically gifted person may, during the hypomanic stage, adopt seemingly "genius" characteristics and an ability to perform and articulate at a level far beyond that which they would be capable of during euthymia.

A very simple indicator of a manic state would be if a heretofore clinically depressed patient suddenly becomes inordinately energetic, enthusiastic, cheerful, aggressive, or "over happy".

Other, often less obvious, elements of mania include delusions generally of either grandeur or persecution, according to whether the predominant mood is euphoric or irritable , hypersensitivity, hypervigilance , hypersexuality, hyper-religiosity, hyperactivity and impulsivity, a compulsion to over explain typically accompanied by pressure of speech , grandiose schemes and ideas, and a decreased need for sleep for example, feeling rested after only 3 or 4 hours of sleep.

Individuals may also engage in out-of-character behavior during the episode, such as questionable business transactions, wasteful expenditures of money e.

These behaviours may increase stress in personal relationships, lead to problems at work, and increase the risk of altercations with law enforcement.

There is a high risk of impulsively taking part in activities potentially harmful to the self and others. Although "severely elevated mood" sounds somewhat desirable and enjoyable, the experience of mania is ultimately often quite unpleasant and sometimes disturbing, if not frightening, for the person involved and for those close to them, and it may lead to impulsive behaviour that may later be regretted.

It can also often be complicated by the sufferer's lack of judgment and insight regarding periods of exacerbation of characteristic states.

Manic patients are frequently grandiose, obsessive, impulsive, irritable, belligerent, and frequently deny anything is wrong with them.

Because mania frequently encourages high energy and decreased perception of need or ability to sleep, within a few days of a manic cycle, sleep-deprived psychosis may appear, further complicating the ability to think clearly.

Racing thoughts and misperceptions lead to frustration and decreased ability to communicate with others. Stage I corresponds with hypomania and may feature typical hypomanic characteristics, such as gregariousness and euphoria.

In stages II and III mania, however, the patient may be extraordinarily irritable, psychotic or even delirious. These latter two stages are referred to as acute and delirious or Bell's , respectively.

Various triggers have been associated with switching from euthymic or depressed states into mania. One common trigger of mania is antidepressant therapy.

Studies show that the risk of switching while on an antidepressant is between percent. Dopaminergic drugs such as reuptake inhibitors and dopamine agonists may also increase risk of switch.

Other medication possibly include glutaminergic agents and drugs that alter the HPA axis. Lifestyle triggers include irregular sleep-wake schedules and sleep deprivation, as well as extremely emotional or stressful stimuli.

Various genes that have been implicated in genetic studies of bipolar have been manipulated in preclinical animal models to produce syndromes reflecting different aspects of mania.

CLOCK and DBP polymorphisms have been linked to bipolar in population studies, and behavioral changes induced by knockout are reversed by lithium treatment.

Metabotropic glutamate receptor 6 has been genetically linked to bipolar, and found to be under-expressed in the cortex.

Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating peptide has been associated with bipolar in gene linkage studies, and knockout in mice produces mania like-behavior.

Targets of various treatments such as GSK-3 , and ERK1 have also demonstrated mania like behavior in preclinical models. Mania may be associated with strokes, especially cerebral lesions in the right hemisphere.

Deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus in Parkinson's disease has been associated with mania, especially with electrodes placed in the ventromedial STN.

A proposed mechanism involves increased excitatory input from the STN to dopaminergic nuclei. Mania can also be caused by physical trauma or illness.

When the causes are physical, it is called secondary mania. The mechanism underlying mania is unknown, but the neurocognitive profile of mania is highly consistent with dysfunction in the right prefrontal cortex, a common finding in neuroimaging studies.

Meta analysis of neuroimaging studies demonstrate increased thalamic activity, and bilaterally reduced inferior frontal gyrus activation. Reduced functional connectivity between the ventral prefrontal cortex and amygdala along with variable findings supports a hypothesis of general dysregulation of subcortical structures by the prefrontal cortex.

Manic episodes may be triggered by dopamine receptor agonists, and this combined with tentative reports of increased VMAT2 activity, measured via PET scans of radioligand binding , suggests a role of dopamine in mania.

Decreased cerebrospinal fluid levels of the serotonin metabolite 5-HIAA have been found in manic patients too, which may be explained by a failure of serotonergic regulation and dopaminergic hyperactivity.

Limited evidence suggests that mania is associated with behavioral reward hypersensitivity, as well as with neural reward hypersensitivity.

Electrophysiological evidence supporting this comes from studies associating left frontal EEG activity with mania.

As left frontal EEG activity is generally thought to be a reflection of behavioral activation system activity, this is thought to support a role for reward hypersensitivity in mania.

Tentative evidence also comes from one study that reported an association between manic traits and feedback negativity during receipt of monetary reward or loss.

Neuroimaging evidence during acute mania is sparse, but one study reported elevated orbitofrontal cortex activity to monetary reward, and another study reported elevated striatal activity to reward omission.

The latter finding was interpreted in the context of either elevated baseline activity resulting in a null finding of reward hypersensitivity , or reduced ability to discriminate between reward and punishment, still supporting reward hyperactivity in mania.

In the ICD there are several disorders with the manic syndrome: organic manic disorder F Before beginning treatment for mania, careful differential diagnosis must be performed to rule out secondary causes.

The acute treatment of a manic episode of bipolar disorder involves the utilization of either a mood stabilizer valproate , lithium , lamotrigine , or carbamazepine or an atypical antipsychotic olanzapine , quetiapine , risperidone , or aripiprazole.

Although hypomanic episodes may respond to a mood stabilizer alone, full-blown episodes are treated with an atypical antipsychotic often in conjunction with a mood stabilizer, as these tend to produce the most rapid improvement.

When the manic behaviours have gone, long-term treatment then focuses on prophylactic treatment to try to stabilize the patient's mood, typically through a combination of pharmacotherapy and psychotherapy.

The likelihood of having a relapse is very high for those who have experienced two or more episodes of mania or depression. While medication for bipolar disorder is important to manage symptoms of mania and depression, studies show relying on medications alone is not the most effective method of treatment.

Medication is most effective when used in combination with other bipolar disorder treatments, including psychotherapy , self-help coping strategies, and healthy lifestyle choices.

Lithium is the classic mood stabilizer to prevent further manic and depressive episodes. More recent drug solutions include lamotrigine and topiramate , both anticonvulsants as well.

In some cases, long-acting benzodiazepines, particularly clonazepam , are used after other options are exhausted. In more urgent circumstances, such as in emergency rooms, lorazepam has been used to promptly alleviate symptoms of agitation, aggression, and psychosis.

Sometimes atypical antipsychotics are used in combination with the previous mentioned medications as well, including olanzapine which helps treat hallucinations or delusions, asenapine , aripiprazole , risperidone , ziprasidone , and clozapine which is often used for people who do not respond to lithium or anticonvulsants.

Verapamil , a calcium-channel blocker, is useful in the treatment of hypomania and in those cases where lithium and mood stabilizers are contraindicated or ineffective.

Antidepressant monotherapy is not recommended for the treatment of depression in patients with bipolar disorders I or II, and no benefit has been demonstrated by combining antidepressants with mood stabilizers in these patients.

Some atypical antidepressants, however, such as mirtazepine and trazodone have been occasionally used after other options have failed.

In Electroboy: A Memoir of Mania by Andy Behrman , he describes his experience of mania as "the most perfect prescription glasses with which to see the world There is some evidence that people in the creative industries suffer from bipolar disorder more often than those in other occupations.

English actor Stephen Fry , who suffers from bipolar disorder, [48] recounts manic behaviour during his adolescence: "When I was about I bought ridiculous suits with stiff collars and silk ties from the s, and would go to the Savoy and Ritz and drink cocktails.

The nosology of the various stages of a manic episode has changed over the decades. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

For other uses, see Mania disambiguation. For other uses, see Maniacal disambiguation. Main article: Mixed affective state. Main article: Hypomania.

Further information: Biology of bipolar disorder. History of Psychiatry. Retrieved 18 November

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